76. The pH value is calculated mathematically as the

(A) log of the hydroxyl ion (OH-) concentration.

(B) negative log of the OH- concentration.

(C) log of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration.

(D) negative log of the H+ concentration.

(E) ratio of H+/OH- concentration.

Right Answer is (D)

77. The pH of a buffer system can be calculated with the

(A) Noyes–Whitney equation.

(B) Henderson–Hasselbalch equation

(C) Michaelis–Menten equation.

(D) Young equation.

(E) Stokes equation.

Right Answer is (B)

78. Which solution is used as an astringent?

(A) strong iodine solution USP

(B) aluminum acetate topical solution USP

(C) acetic acid NF

(D) aromatic ammonia spirit USP

(E) benzalkonium chloride solution NF

Right Answer is (B)

79. Which compound is a natural emulsifying agent?

(A) acacia

(B) lactose

(C) polysorbate 20

(D) polysorbate 80

(E) sorbitan monopalmitate

Right Answer is (A)

80. Which technique is typically used to mill camphor?

(A) trituration

(B) levigation

(C) pulverization by intervention

(D) geometric dilution

(E) attrition

Right Answer is (C)

81. The dispensing pharmacist usually blends potent powders with a large amount of diluent by

(A) spatulation.
(B) sifting.
(C) trituration.
(D) geometric dilution.
(E) levigation.

Right Answer is (D)

82. Which type of paper best protects a divided hygroscopic powder?

(A) waxed paper
(B) glassine
(C) white bond
(D) blue bond
(E) vegetable parchment

Right Answer is (A)

83. The shells of soft gelatin capsules may be made elastic or plastic-like by the addition of -

(A) sorbitol.

(B) povidone.

(C) polyethylene glycol (PEG).

(D) lactose.

(E) hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

Right Answer is (A)

84. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) content uniformity test for tablets is used to ensure which quality?

(A) bioequivalency

(B) dissolution

(C) potency

(D) purity

(E) toxicity

Right Answer is (C)

85. All of the following statements about chemical degradation are true except -

(A) as temperature increases, degradation decreases.

(B) most drugs degrade by a first-order process.

(C) chemical degradation may produce a toxic product.

(D) chemical degradation may result in a loss of active ingredients.

(E) chemical degradation may affect the therapeutic activity of a drug

Right Answer is (A)

86. All of the following statements concerning zero-order degradation are true except

(A) its rate is independent of the concentration.

(B) a plot of concentration versus time yields a straight line on rectilinear paper.

(C) its half-life is a changing parameter.

(D) its concentration remains unchanged with respect to time.

(E) the slope of a plot of concentration versus time yields a rate constant.

Right Answer is (D)

87. All of the following statements about first-order degradation are true except

(A) its rate is dependent on the concentration.

(B) its half-life is a changing parameter.

(C) a plot of the logarithm of concentration versus time yields a straight line.

(D) its t90% is independent of the concentration.

(E) a plot of the logarithm of concentration versus time allows the rate constant to be determined

Right Answer is (B)

88. A satisfactory suppository base must meet all of the following criteria except

(A) it should have a narrow melting range.

(B) it should be nonirritating and nonsensitizing.

(C) it should dissolve or disintegrate rapidly in the body cavity.

(D) it should melt below 30°C.

(E) it should be inert.

Right Answer is (D)

89. Cocoa butter (theobroma oil) exhibits all of the following properties except

(A) it melts at temperatures between 33°C and 35°C.

(B) it is a mixture of glycerides.

(C) it is a polymorph.

(D) it is useful in formulating rectal suppositories.

(E) it is soluble in water.

Right Answer is (E)

90. United States Pharmacopeia (USP) tests to ensure the quality of drug products in tablet form include all of the following except

(A) disintegration.

(B) dissolution.

(C) hardness and friability.

(D) content uniformity.

(E) weight variation.

Right Answer is (C)

91. Forms of water that are suitable for use in parenteral -

preparations include

(A) purified water USP.

(B) water for injection USP.

(C) sterile water for injection USP.

Right Answer is (B&C)

92. The sedimentation of particles in a suspension can be minimized by -

(A) adding sodium benzoate.

(B) increasing the viscosity of the suspension.

(C) reducing the particle size of the active ingredient.

Right Answer is (B&C)

93. Mechanisms that are thought to provide stable emulsifications include the

(A) formation of interfacial film.

(B) lowering of interfacial tension.

(C) presence of charge on the ions.

Right Answer is (A, B&C)

94. Nonionic surface-active agents used as synthetic emulsifiers include

(A) tragacanth.

(B) sodium lauryl sulfate.

(C) sorbitan esters (Spans)

Right Answer is (C)

95. Advantages of systemic drug administration by rectal suppositories include

(A) avoidance of first-pass effects.

(B) suitability when the oral route is not feasible.

(C) predictable drug release and absorption.

Right Answer is (A&B)

96. True statements about the milling of powders include

(A) a fine particle size is essential if the lubricant is to function properly.

(B) an increased surface area may enhance the  dissolution rate.

(C) milling may cause degradation of thermolabile drugs.

Right Answer is (A, B&C)

97. Substances used to insulate powder components that liquefy when mixed include

(A) talc.

(B) kaolin.

(C) light magnesium oxide.

Right Answer is (B&C)

98. Which manufacturing variables would be likely to affect the dissolution of a prednisone tablet in the body?

(A) the amount and type of binder added

(B) the amount and type of disintegrant added

(C) the force of compression used during tableting

Right Answer is (A, B&C)

99. Agents that may be used to coat enteric-coated tablets include -

(A) hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.

(B) carboxymethylcellulose.

(C) cellulose acetate phthalate.

Right Answer is (C)

100. True statements about the function of excipients used in tablet formulations include

(A) binders promote granulation during the wet granulation process.

(B) glidants help promote the flow of the tablet granulation during manufacture.

(C) lubricants help the patient swallow the tablets.

Right Answer is (A&B)

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