Pharmacy Courses

Compression Process in Pharmaceutical Industry

Pharmaceutical compression process is an important part of pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing. Whereupper and lower punchesbringing together under pressure within the die to form the tablet. As the punches enter the compressing stage, the upper and lower punches move between two large wheels called pressure rolls.

Tablets are always required to release the active drug component at a consistent rate and a consistent dose. To maintain this consistent release rate and dose compression is required in tablet manufacturing. Tablet compression also carry the following benefits: 

  • sufficient strength, 
  • identification marks, 
  • low production costs,
  • ease of administration etc.

Major Steps of Tablet Compression Process

  • Machine setting
  • Powder Feeding
  • Compression
  • Ejection

Tablet Compression Machine Parameters to be checked

  • Pre Pressure Thickness
  • Main Pressure Thickness
  • Tablet Filling Depth
  • Compression Force (KN)
  • Fill-o-Matic Speed/ Feeder speed
  • Turret speed/ RPM
  • Punch Stiffness (upper / lower)

Parts and Function of Tablet Compression Machine

  • Hopper: where the granules/powder mixtures are poured into prior to tableting or compression.
  • Feeder System: it allows an accurate and consistent amount of powder to flow to the punch and die system.
  • Punches: tablet size and shape are controlled by the design and shape of a punches.
  • Die System: the movement ofpunches take place within the die bore or cavity.
  • Turret: rotating turrets have holes that host the die system of a tablet making machine.
  • Cam Tracks: guide theposition/movement of upper and lower punches.
  • Filling Station & Weight Control: control movement of the cam track for accurate dosing.
  • Compression Rollers: to expel air first before the compression process begins (Pre-compression roller and Main compression roller).
  • Ejection Cam: steadily and slowly push the bottom punch upwards.
  • Discharge Chute: facilitates the ejection of the tablet from the die cavity after compression.
  • Control Panel: to adjust and control the machine parameter.

Critical Process Parameters and Critical Quality Attributes of Tablet Compression


  • Compression machine speed
  • Pre-compression Force
  • Main compression Force
  • Feeder Speed
  • Filling Depth
  • Punch penetration depth


  • Target weight,
  • Weight uniformity,
  • Content uniformity,
  • Hardness,
  • Thickness,
  • Tablet porosity,
  • Friability

Tablet Defects and Remedies

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