Frequently Used Excipients in Solid Dosage Formulation

Diluent

Calcium carbonate, Calcium phosphate, Dibasic calcium phosphate, Tribasic calcium sulfate cellulose, Microcrystalline cellulose, Dextrates, Dextrin, Dextrose, Excipient, Fructose, Kaolin, Lacitol, Lactose, Mannitol, Sorbitol, Starch, Pregelatinized starch, Sugar, Compressible sugar, Confectioner's sugar etc.


Binder

Acacia, Alginic acid, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Sodium cellulose, Liquid guar gum, Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Povidone k-30, Pregelatinized starch syrup etc.


Glidant

Calcium silicate, Magnesium silicate, Silicon dioxide, Colloidal talc etc.


Disintegrant

Alginic acid, Cellulose, Microcrystalline cellulose, Croscarmellose sodium, Cross povidone, Sodium starch glycolate, Pregelatinized starch etc.


Lubricant

Calcium stearate, Magnesium stearate, Mineral oil, Light PEG, Purified talc, Vegetable oil, Stearic acid etc.


Coating Agent

Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cellulose acetate, Cellulose acetate pthalate (CAP), Ethyl cellulose, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose pthalate, Methacrylic acid copolymer, Methyl cellulose, PEG, Polyvinyl acetate, Shellac, Titanium dioxide, Wax, Carnauba wax, Microcrystalline zein etc.


Frequently Used Excipients in Semi-solid Dosage Formulation

Structure forming agents

Cetosteryl alcohol, Sorbitan, Mineral oils etc.


Preservatives

Benzyl alcohol, Sodium benzoate, Methyl paraben, Propyl paraben, Chlorocresol etc.


Antioxidants

Butyl hydroxyl toluene, Butyl hydroxyl anisole, Ascorbic acid etc.


Solubilizers

Lanolin, Cholesterol, Cholesterol esters etc.


Gelling agents

Carbomer, Carboxy methyl cellulose, Hydroxyl propyl cellulose, Xanthan gum etc.


Emollients

Glycerin, Mineral oil, Petrolatum, Isopropyl palmitate etc.


Suppository bases

Cocoa butter, Glycerin, Coconut oil, Gelatin, Hydrogenated vegetable oil, Polyethylene glycol etc.


Frequently Used Excipients in Liquid Dosage Formulation

Solvents

Water, Alcohol, Acetic acid, Acetone, Ethyl acetate, Syrups etc.


Co solvents

Ethanol, Sorbitol, Glycerin, Propylene glycol etc.


Buffers

Phosphate buffers, Acetate buffers, Citric acid phosphate buffers etc.


Antimicrobial preservatives

Benzyl alcohol, Sodium benzoate, Methyl paraben, Propyl paraben, Butyl paraben, Phenol, Thiomersal etc.


Antioxidant

Ascorbic acid, Sodium bisulphate, Thiourea, Butyl hydroxyl toluene (BHT), Tocopherols etc.


Wetting agents

Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), Tween 80, Spans, Lecithins etc.


Antifoaming agents

Simethicone, Organic phosphates, Alcohols, Paraffin oils, Glycol etc.


Thickening agents

Methyl cellulose, Hydroxyethyl cellulose, Microcrystalline cellulose etc.


Humectants

Propylene glycol, glycerol, polyethylene glycol etc.


Chelating agents

Disodium EDTA, Dihydroxy ethyl glycine, Citric acid, Tartaric acid etc.


Emulsifying agents

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), Cetrimide, Macrogol esters, Sorbitan esters etc.


Flocculating agents

Starch, Sodium alginate, Carbomer etc.


Sweetening agents

Sucrose, Sorbitol, Saccharin, Aspartame, Sucralose etc.


Frequently Used Excipients in Ophthalmic Preparation

Vehicles

Water for injections, Boric acid vehicle, Special boric acid vehicle, Isotonic phosphate vehicle etc.


Buffering Agents

Boric acid, Sodium acid phosphate, Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Dodecahydrate, Sodium citrate, Potassium chloride and Sodium carbonate etc.


Tonicity Agents

Sodium chloride, Potassium chloride, Mannitol etc.


Preservative

Phenylmercuric nitrate, Benzalkonium chloride, Chlorhexidine acetate, Hydroxybenzoates, Chlorocresol, Chlorbutol, Thiomersal, Sodium perborate etc.


Reducing Agents

Sodium metabisulphite, Sodium thiosulphate etc.


Anti-oxidants

Ascorbic acid, Butylated Hydroxyanisole, Butylated Hydroxytoluene, Sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate etc.


Sequestering Agents

Disodium edetate, Sodium citrate etc.


Dissolution Enhancer

Povidone, Macrogol 15 hydroxystearate, Cyclodextrin etc.


Viscosity Enhancer

Polyvinyl alcohol, Methyl cellulose, Bentonite etc.


Suspending Agents

Bentonite, Carbomer, Methyl cellulose etc.


Frequently Used Excipients in Injectable Preparation

  • Alcohol
  • Aluminum Phosphate Adjuvant
  • Butylene Glycol
  • Calcium Acetate
  • Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium
  • Chlorocresol
  • Citric acid Monohydrate
  • Dextrose Monohydrate
  • Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Dodecahydrate
  • HCl 37%
  • Mannitol
  • Sodium Carbonate
  • Sodium Chloride
  • Sodium Citrate
  • Sodium Hyaluronate
  • Sodium Metabisulfite
  • Sodium Phosphate
  • Sodium Sulfite
  • Sorbitol
  • Thimerosal
  • WFI

Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients